Department of Islamic Law  - Undergraduate Courses

DEPARTMENT OF ISLAMIC LAW
A.        Introduction to Islamic Law (LWIS 201)
            1.         Pre-Islamic Arabia:
                        i.          Constitution of Arabian Society
                        ii.         Religious and Social Systems;
                        iii.        Settlement of Disputes
            2.         The rise of Islam and its composite nature as:
                        i.          A religious faith
ii.         An ideology (compared to the other major political doctrines); and
                        iii.        A system of law.
            3.         The concept of the Islamic State and the Muslim Community

B.        THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ISLAMIC LEGAL SYSTEM
1.         The life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and the four rightly guided caliphs.
i.          The period of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and the four rightly guided caliphs  610 632 A. D.:
ii.         The period of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
632 – 661 A. D.:
1st Caliph – Abubakar Abdullah;
2nd Caliph – Umar Ibn Khattab;
3rd Caliph – Uthman Ibn Affan;
4th Caliph Ali Ibn Abi – Talib.
2.         The period of post-rightly-guided caliphs:
Umayyad Caliphate – 661 – 750 A. D.;
Abbasid Caliphate – 750 – 1258 A. D.
3.         The emergence of the four Sunni Schools:
i.          Hannafi School (Kufah School);
ii.         Maliki School (Madina School)
iii.        Shafi’i School
iv.        Hambali School.
4.         The application of the Maliki School in North and West Africa (with special reference to Nigeria).           

INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC LAW (The Law of Obligations) LWIS 202
A.        Islamic Criminal Law
1.         Concept of Crime
2.         Features of Islamic Criminal Liability
3.         Defences to Islamic Criminal Liability
4.         Hudud Offences
i.          Zina (Adultery/Fornication) and its related offences i.e Rape, Lesbianism, Homo-sexuality, and sex with animals etc.
ii.         Qisas (slander)
iii.        Al-Sariga (theft)
iv.        Shurbul-Khamr (wine drinking)
v.         Hirabah (brigandage/Robbery)
vi.        Riddah (Apostasy)
vii.       Baghye (Rebellion)
5.         Qisas – Retaliation
i.          Murder or International Killing
ii.         Manslaughter or Unintentional Killing
iii.        Injury or grievous hurt
iv.        Shurbul-Khamr (wine drinking)
v.         Hirabah (Brigandage/Robbery)
vi.        Ridda (Apostasy)
vii.       Baghye (Rebellion)
6.         Ta’azir (discretionary Punishment)
7.         Concept and Nature of Punishment

B.        Islamic Family Law
1.         Introduction
2.         Khitbab (Marriage Proposal)
3.         Essentials of a valid Marriage
4.         Position of woman in Islam
5.         Polygamy
6.         Rights and Obligations of Spouses
7.         Dissolution of Marriage and its consequences

C.        Islamic Law of Transactions
1.         General Principles of the Conception of Contract
2.         Capacity of the contracting Parties
3.         Formation of Contract
4.         Terms in the contract
5.         Void and voidable Contracts
6.         Termination of Contract
7.         Special contracts
i.          Sale of Goods
ii.         Contracts of Hire (including Carriage of goods, lease and services)
iii.        Contract of Mortgage
iv.        Partnership and other joint ventures i.e Mudhara’ah. Musaqat.Mudarabah etc.

LWIS 203 Islamic Constitutional Law
A.        INTRODUCTION
1.         Pre-Islamic Arabia
i.          Constitution of Arabian Society
ii.         Religious and Social Systems;
iii.        Settlement of Disputes
2.         The rise of Islam and its composite nature as:
i.          A religious faith;
ii.         An ideology (compared to the other major political doctrines); and
iii.        A System of law
3.         The concept of the Islamic State and the Muslim Community

B.        THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ISLAMIC LEGAL SYSTEM
1.         The life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and the four rightly guided caliphs.
i.          The period of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) 610 – 632 A.D.:
ii.         The period of the four rightly – guided caliphs 632 661 A. D.:
1st Caliph – Abubakar Abdallah;
2nd Caliph – Umar Ibn Khattab;
3rd Caliph – Uthman Ibn Affan;
4th Caliph – Ali Ibn Abi-Talib
2.         The period of post-rightly-guided caliphs
Umayyad caliphate – 661 – 750 – A. D.:
Abba id Caliphate 750 1258 A. D.
3.         The Emergence of the four Sunni Schools;
i.          Hannafi School (Kufan School);
ii.         Maliki School (Madinan School);
iii.        Shafi’i School
iv.        Hanbali School

4.         The application of the Maliki School in North and West Africa (with special reference to Nigeria).

C.        An Analysis of the Original of Islamic Law
1.         The Holy Qur’an
2.         Sunnah
i.          Hadith compilation
3.         Ijma (juristic consensus of Muslim Jurists).
4.         Qiyas analogical deduction (or the technique of evolving law from the Original sources)
5.         Subsidiary Sources:
i.          Istibsan;
ii.         Istislah;
iii.        Istishab:
iv.        Sadd al-Dhara’I;
v.         Urf and ‘adat, etc.
6.         The development of Islamic Jurisprudence:
i.          Ijtihad (independent deduction of some rule of law from the recognize do sources).
ii.         Taqlid (acceptance of the rulings of predecessors as authoritative without independent examination);
iii.        Neo-Ijtihad (with special reference to the jurist al-sayyid Jamal al-Din a; Afghani and his disciples, including al-Imam Muhammad Abduh).

LWIS 204 – Islamic Constitutional law
1.         General Legal maxims
al Umaru bi Maqasidiha; al-yiqinu la yazalu bish-shakk; la darar wa la dirar; al-mashaqqah tajlibut-taysir; al-adatu muhakkamah, relationship of maxims to sources.
2.         Nature of the Islamic State
Importance, political structure, sovereignty, appointments, qualification, government structure.
3.         Consultation (Shura)
Early times, evolution of the doctrine of osculation, modern times, and relationship with Ijma’ difference between Shura and Parliament          
4.         State Funds
Discharge of public trusts; sources of revenue; ghanimah, sadaqat, fari; distribution of resources.
5.         Duties of State
Enforcement of good values, prohibition of vice; enforcement of the Institution of prayer and compulsory charity; enforcement of the criminal law; providing security.
6.         Citizenship
Muslims, non-Muslims; conditions, duties of the citizen, rights, constitution, treaties.

LWIS 301: Islamic Law of Crime
1.         (a)        Definition of crime and elements of criminal liability
(b)        Variations of Criminal liability infants; mistake; accident: compulsion/necessity; intoxication; insanity; self-defence; consent and provocation.

2.         Offences and their Punishments
(a)        Crimes punishable by Hudud and Qisas
i.          Crimes against life and limb
ii.         Offences against public morality zina; false accusation; intoxication.
iii.        Offences against property  (including theft, high-way robbery and hiraba)
(b)        Crimes punishable by ta’azir (i.e punishable at the Discretion of human authorities).
(c)        Cumulation of punishments

LWIS 302: Islamic Law of Tort:
i.          Definition of Tort, i.e. distinction between Tort and Crime
ii.         Principles of Liability
iii.        Prevention and self-defence
iv.        Classification of Tort
v.         Injuries to person and property
vi.        Coercion
vii.       Fraud
viii.      Remedies etc.

LWIS 303: MUAMALAT:
(a)        General principles of the conception of contract:
i.          Capacity of the contracting parties
ii.         Formation of contract

  1. offer and acceptance
  2. legality of the subject matter

(b)        iii.        Terms in the Contract
a.         Implied terms; and
b.         Express terms (Khiyarat)
iv.        Void and voidable contracts
(c)        v.         Termination of Contract

LWIS 304: Mu’amalat
a.         Special Contracts:
i.          Sale of Goods
ii.         Contracts of Hire (including carriage of goods, lease and services).
b.         Contract of Mortgage (Rahn)
c.         Partnership and other joint ventures (including muzara’a, musaqat, mudaraba)

LWIS 305:  Islamic Family Law
a.         Law of Marriage:
i.          Preliminaries Betrothal: binding nature of betrothal, withdrawal and betrothal gifs.
ii.         Contract of Marriage: Definition of marriage; capacity of contracting parties; guardianship of marriage; power of marriage guardians; doctrines of different schools with regard to guardianship.
iii.        Offer and acceptance
iv.        Dower (Mahar): Legality of dower; proper and stipulated dower; legality of marriage where illegal property or no dower is stipulated at all.
v.         Void and voidable marriages: Shighar; mut’a; muhallil; defects in the spouses.
vi.        Impediments to marriage (permanent and temporary impediments); defects in the spouses.
vii.       Mixed Marriage: Marriage to a kitabiyya including marriage of a Muslim woman to a non-Muslim man; marriage of a Muslim to the non-religious person; one of the spouses embracing Islam.
viii.      Polygamy: Conditions of polygamy including equal treatment to wives (polyandry prohibited).
ix.        Rights and Duties of the Spouses

  1. rights of the husband;
  2. rights of the wives, and
  3. mutual rights

b.         Termination of the Contract of Marriage
i.          By Repudiation (Talaq): Definition of Talaq; capacity; form of talaq; limitation to talaq; legal classification of talaq and legal effect of talaq.
ii.         By Khulc (Mutual agreement upon payment of property consideration); definition, capacity of parties to KhulC agreement; legality of the Khulc property and legal effect of Khulc.
iii.        By Court Decree: Legal grounds for obtaining courts degree; ila (vow of abstinence); Zihar (injurious assimilation); lian (accusation of unchastity). Legal effects.
iv.        By Death of either Spouse:

c.         IDDA  - (period of waiting)
d.         Maintenance of Relatives: what is maintenance?
i.          maintenance of the wife: commencement of the right: level of maintenance; when the right of maintenance is lost.
ii.         Maintenance of children: Duration of the right of the restoration of the right.
iii.        Maintenance of parents: Commencements of the right.
iv.        Who has the preferential right to be maintained.

e.         Fosterage and Hadana (custody of the child)
i.          Fosterage: Mother’s obligation to suckle the child; father’s obligation to pay for the suckling of his child
ii.         Hadana: Who has the right to the custody of the child where marriage terminated; persons entitled to the right of custody; qualifications of the custodian; how the right is lost; restoration of the right – and duration of the custody.

f.          Establishment of Paternity
i.          By the maxim “al-wa’ad-lit-firash” the child belongs to the marriage bed; minimum period of gestation; maximum period of gestation; doctrine of different schools:
ii.         By acknowledgement: conditions governing acknowledgement; who will acknowledge; legal effects of acknowledgement.

g.         Guardianship
i.          of person
ii.         of property
iii.        Who may be appointed
iv.        Powers of the Guardian
v.         how guardianship is lost

LWIS 306:  Islamic Law of Testate and Intestate Succession:
a.         Intestate Succession
1.         a.         Introduction to the Law of Succession
b.         Elements of succession
c.         Estate; who can be inherited
d.         Causes of inheritance
e.         Conditions of inheritance
i.          Death of the praepositus, and
ii.         Survival of the Heir
f.          Impediments to succession
g.         Devolution of the estate

            2.         Who are the Legal heirs
a.         ashab-al-furud (Qur’anic shares)
b.         asaba (agnatic heirs)
c.         Cognate heirs (dhawul ar-ham)
d.         Bait-el-Mal as a quasi-heir
e.         The doctrine of Radd (return).

            3.         Distribution of estate
Procedure when the fractional shares add up to more than a unit (the doctrine of awl)

            4.         Grandfather in completion with brothers and or sisters
            5.         The doctrine of priority (hajib and hirman)

b.         Testate Succession
1.         Introduction and definition of bequest (wasiyya)
a.         Essential to Bequest
i.          Testator (Musi)
ii.         Legatee (Musa Lahu)
iii.        Formalities (sigha)
iv.        Bequest object (Musa bihi)
3.         Validity of Bequests
a.         Invalid bequests
b.         Ultra vires bequests
c.         The doctrine of the Death Sickness (Mard-al Maut)

LWIS 401:  Islamic Law of Personal Status
a.         Law of Marriage:
i.          Preliminaries Betrothal: binding nature of betrothal, withdrawal and betrothal gifs.
ii.         Contract of Marriage: Definition of marriage; capacity of contracting parties; guardianship of marriage; power of marriage guardians; doctrines of different schools with regard to guardianship.
iii.        Offer and acceptance
iv.        Dower (Mahar): Legality of dower; proper and stipulated dower; legality of marriage where illegal property or no dower is stipulated at all.
v.         Void and voidable marriages: Shighar; mut’a; muhallil; defects in the spouses.
vi.        Impediments to marriage (permanent and temporary impediments); defects in the spouses.
vii.       Mixed Marriage: Marriage to a kitabiyya including marriage of a Muslim woman to a non-Muslim man; marriage of a Muslim to the non-religious person; one of the spouses embracing Islam.
viii.      Polygamy: Conditions of polygamy including equal treatment to wives (polyandry prohibited).
ix.        Rights and Duties of the Spouses

  1. rights of the husband;
  2. rights of the wives, and
  3. mutual rights

 

LWIS 402:    Islamic Law of Personal Status
b.         Termination of the Contract of Marriage
i.          By Repudiation (Talaq): Definition of Talaq; capacity; form of talaq; limitation to talaq; Legal classification of talaq and legal effect of talaq.
ii.         By Khulc (Mutual agreement upon payment of property consideration); definition, capacity of parties to Khulc agreement; legality of the Khulc property and legal effect of Khulc           
III.       By Court Decree: Legal grounds for obtaining courts degree; ila (vow of absentance); Zihar (injurious assimilation); lian (accusation of unchastity). Legal effects.
iv.        By Death of either Spouse:

c.         IDDA  (period of waiting)
d.         Maintenance of Relatives: what is maintenance?
i.          maintenance of the wife: commencement of the right: level of maintenance; when the right of maintenance is lost.
ii.         Maintenance: when the right of maintenance is lost.
iii.        Maintenance of parents: Commencements of the right.
iv.        Who has the preferential right to be maintained.

e.         Fosterage and Hadana (custody of the child)
i.          Fosterage: Mother’s obligation to suckle the child; father’s obligation to pay for the suckling of his child
ii.         Hadana: Who has the right to the custody of the child where marriage terminated; persons entitled to the right of custody; qualifications of the custodian; how the right is lost; restoration of the right – and duration of the custody.

f.          Establishment of Paternity
i.          By the maxim “al-wa’ad-lit-firash” the child belongs to the marriage bed; minimum period of gestation; maximum period of gestation; doctrine of different schools:
ii.         By acknowledgement: conditions governing acknowledgement; who will acknowledge; legal effects of acknowledgement.

g.         Guardianship
i.          of person
ii.         of property
iii.        Who may be appointed
iv.        Powers of the Guardian
v.         how guardianship is lost

LWIS 403:  Murafa’at:
1.         Introduction to Pleadings:
a.         Jurisdiction of Court
i.          of the person
ii.         of subject matter
b.         Conduct of the judge
c.         Parties and joinder of parties
d.         Venue
e.         Institution of action
i.          filing the claim
ii.         Summons
f.          Definition of the claim
2.         Means of Proof
a.         i.          Admissions and confessions
ii.         Types and conditions of Admission
iii.        Restriction of Admission
            b.         Evidence
i.          Burden of Proof
ii.         Persons who can be called as witnesses; conditions governing he witnesses and their statement; when witnesses may be put on oath; special modes of proof, taskiya of witnesses; presumptions; kinds of evidence.
iii.        Types of Evidence

  1. Evidence of infants
  2. Circumstantial
  3. Documentary
  4. Dying declaration
  5. Character evidence
  6. Withdrawal of statement by witness

c.         Oath as means of proof; who will take oath and when; conditions for taking the oath; form of taking the oath; if and when the plaintiff is asked to take the oath.

LWIS 404:     Tafsir and Hadith
a.         Tafsir
Interpretation and commentary on selected verses in the Qur’an dealing with Islamic Law of Crime and Tort.
i.          Sexual Offences (Zina)
ii.         Defamation and slander – Qazf
-           reference Qur’an sura IV: verses 15 and 16;
-           Qur’an XXXIV verses 2 – 9; Qur’an XXIX: verses 28 and 29
iii.        High way Robbery and Brigandage
Qur’an V: verses 33 and 34
iv.        Simple Theft (sariqa)
-           Qur’an IV: verses 87 and 88: Qur’an X: verse 59;
Qur’an II: verses 173 and 219; Qur’an V: 145 and 146
Qur’an XVI: verses 8, 80 and 116; Qur’an XXXV: verse 12.

b.         General principles of Mu’amalat:
Qur’an II; verse 186; Qur’an IV; verse 29; Qur’an V: verse 1
i.          Sale and usury – Qur’an II: verse 279
ii.         Interdiction and Guardianship
Qur’an II, verse 220; Qur’an IV: verses 2,5,6,7,10, and 127
iii.        Debts and mortgage, Qur’an II: verses 282 and 283
iv.        Jaala, Qur’an XII: verse 27
v.         Ijara, Qur’an XXVIII: verse 27
vi.        Amana (Trust) Qur’an IV: verse 58

c.         Hadith
relevant prophetic traditions chosen from Muwadda Malik and Bulugh al-Maram.

 

LWIS 501: Islamic Law of Testate and Intestate Succession:
a.         Intestate Succession
1.         a.         Introduction to the Law of Succession
b.         Elements of succession
c.         Estate; who can be inherited
d.         Causes of inheritance
e.         Conditions of inheritance
i.          Death of the praepositus, and
ii.         Survival of the Heir
f.          Impediments to succession
g.         Devolution of the estate
            2.         Who are the Legal heirs
a.         ashab-al-furud (Qur’anic shares)
b.         asaba (agnatic heirs)
c.         Cognate heirs (dhawul ar-ham)
d.         Bait-el-Mal as a quasi-heir
e.         The doctrine of Radd (return).
            3.         Distribution of estate
Procedure when the fractional shares add up to more than a unit (the doctrine of awl)
            4.         Grandfather in completion with brothers and or sisters
            5.         The doctrine of priority (hajib and hirman)

LWIS 502:     Testate Succession
1.         Introduction and definition of bequest (wasiyya)
a.         Essential to Bequest
i.          Testator (Musi)
ii.         Legatee (Musa Lahu)
iii.        formalities (sigha)
iv.        Bequest object (Musa bihi)
2.         Validity of Bequests
a.         Invalid bequests
b.         Ultra vires bequests
c.         The doctrine of the Death Sickness (mard-al Maut)